# Space-time Algebra in Python

Geometric Algebra is a very cool alternative formulation of linear algebra that provides a succinct framework for representing geometric transformations and physical phenomena. One of my favourite books is Geometric Algebra for Computer Science by Leo Dorst, Daniel Fontijne, and Stephen Mann. While it implements the code in a language called GAViewer which is a very cool environment for visualizing geometric algebra, I wanted to implement my own version in Python to really understand the concepts.

1. Blades: These are the fundamental building blocks in geometric algebra representing oriented subspaces. For example:
• A scalar (0-blade) is a point.
• A vector (1-blade) represents a directed line.
• A bivector (2-blade) represents a plane segment oriented in a specific direction.
2. Multivectors: These are linear combinations of different blades and can represent a variety of geometric quantities.

We'll create a class structure that encapsulates different blades (scalars, vectors, bivectors) and multivectors, enabling operations such as addition, subtraction, and geometric products.

Let's start by defining the basic blade classes.

import numpy as np

class Blade:
def __add__(self, other):
return Multivector([self, other])

def __sub__(self, other):
return Multivector([self, -other])

def __neg__(self):
return -1 * self  # Negation

class Scalar(Blade):
def __init__(self, value):
self.value = value

def __repr__(self):
return f"{self.value}"

class Vector(Blade):
def __init__(self, components):
self.components = np.array(components)

def __repr__(self):
return f"Vector({self.components})"

def magnitude(self):
return np.linalg.norm(self.components)

class Bivector(Blade):
def __init__(self, vector1, vector2):
self.vector1 = vector1
self.vector2 = vector2

def __repr__(self):
return f"Bivector({self.vector1}, {self.vector2})"


The Multivector class will represent any linear combination of blades.

class Multivector:
def __init__(self, blades=[]):
self.blades = blades

def __repr__(self):
return f"Multivector({self.blades})"

def add(self, other):
self.blades.extend(other.blades)

def scale(self, scalar):
for blade in self.blades:
blade.value *= scalar


We can implement operations such as the geometric product for vectors and bivectors. Let’s define the operations inside the Vector and Bivector classes.

class Vector(Blade):
def __init__(self, components):
self.components = np.array(components)

# Other methods as before...

def __or__(self, other):
""" Vector wedge product (bivector) """
return Bivector(self, other)

def __and__(self, other):
""" Scalar product (dot product) """
return Scalar(np.dot(self.components, other.components))

class Bivector(Blade):
def __init__(self, vector1, vector2):
self.vector1 = vector1
self.vector2 = vector2

def __repr__(self):
return f"Bivector({self.vector1}, {self.vector2})"

def dual(self):
""" Returns the dual of a bivector as a vector """
return Vector(np.cross(self.vector1.components, self.vector2.components))


Now let’s use our implementation to create some vectors, calculate their products, and demonstrate geometric algebra concepts.

# Create instances of Scalars, Vectors, and Bivectors
s1 = Scalar(5)
v1 = Vector([1, 0, 0])
v2 = Vector([0, 1, 0])
biv = v1 | v2  # Wedge product (Bivector)

# Output representations
print("Scalar:", s1)
print("Vector 1:", v1)
print("Vector 2:", v2)
print("Bivector (v1 wedge v2):", biv)

# Vector dot product
dot_product = v1 & v2
print("Dot Product (v1 · v2):", dot_product)

# Vector wedge product to get a bivector
biv_product = v1 | v2
print("Wedge Product Bivector (v1 ∧ v2):", biv_product)


Building upon our foundation we can extend the implementation to Space-Time Algebra (STA). STA integrates time as a dimension alongside space, allowing us to represent entities and transformations in a four-dimensional context (3 spatial dimensions and 1 temporal dimension).

In STA, we introduce the concept of a time vector, allowing the treatment of events and transformations in both space and time. We'll define a time unit (often represented as $c$, the speed of light, for consistency in relativistic contexts) to relate spatial and temporal components.

We'll modify our Vector class to include time as a component, creating a SpaceTimeVector class that encompasses three spatial dimensions and one temporal dimension.

class SpaceTimeVector(Blade):
def __init__(self, components):
# Expecting components in the form [x, y, z, t]
assert len(components) == 4, "SpaceTimeVector must have four components: [x, y, z, t]."
self.components = np.array(components)

def __repr__(self):
return f"SpaceTimeVector({self.components})"

def magnitude(self):
""" Calculate the Minkowski norm (using (-,+,+,+) signature) """
return np.sqrt(-self.components[3]**2 + np.sum(self.components[:3]**2))

def __add__(self, other):
return SpaceTimeVector(self.components + other.components)

def __sub__(self, other):
return SpaceTimeVector(self.components - other.components)

def __or__(self, other):
""" Wedge product (resulting in a bivector in 3D + time) """
return SpaceTimeBivector(self, other)

def __and__(self, other):
""" Scalar product (dot product, returns a scalar) """
return Scalar(np.dot(self.components, other.components))


The SpaceTimeBivector class represents the geometric product of two SpaceTimeVector instances.

class SpaceTimeBivector(Blade):
def __init__(self, vector1, vector2):
self.vector1 = vector1
self.vector2 = vector2

def __repr__(self):
return f"SpaceTimeBivector({self.vector1}, {self.vector2})"

def dual(self):
""" Returns the dual of a bivector as a SpaceTimeVector """
return SpaceTimeVector(np.cross(self.vector1.components[:3], self.vector2.components[:3]))


Now let's create instances of SpaceTimeVector and demonstrate the functionality.

# Create space-time vectors
st_vector1 = SpaceTimeVector([1, 2, 3, 4])  # (x, y, z, t)
st_vector2 = SpaceTimeVector([4, 5, 6, 7])  # (x', y', z', t')

print("Space-Time Vector 1:", st_vector1)
print("Space-Time Vector 2:", st_vector2)

st_vector_sum = st_vector1 + st_vector2
print("Sum of Space-Time Vectors:", st_vector_sum)

st_vector_diff = st_vector1 - st_vector2
print("Difference of Space-Time Vectors:", st_vector_diff)

dot_product_st = st_vector1 & st_vector2
print("Dot Product of Space-Time Vectors:", dot_product_st)

# Wedge product to get a space-time bivector
st_bivector = st_vector1 | st_vector2
print("Wedge Product Space-Time Bivector:", st_bivector)

magnitude = st_vector1.magnitude()
print("Magnitude of Space-Time Vector 1:", magnitude)